What makes a machine ethical? When is it ethical, or unethical, to wait until an autonomous system is thoroughly trained and tested? A machine does not exist in a vacuum, it reflects society in a ‘socio-technical’ system. Governing for ethical machines requires careful balancing of risks and benefits, consideration of cultural differences in ‘risk appetite’ for innovation, and global and multi-stakeholder coordination. Furthermore, what is the role of the public? How about myths and narratives, which shape our values, norms, and trust in AI & robotics? This presentation will challenge your conception of ethical machines and their interaction with societies. It will raise key governance and policy challenges, and potential solutions, for ensuring the development of ethical machines.